Dear Tropical America Katoomba Members,
We hope you have had a wonderful beginning to 2007!
In the second edition of the Tropical America Katoomba Group (TAKG) newsletter, we present several recent publications and tools, exploring the concept of conservation planning and mapping of costs and benefits associated with environmental services. We take a look at watershed services through a case study on Vittel (Nestlé Waters) in France, a guidance and assessment piece on water services and two tools related to wetlands. On carbon, we explore the topic of avoided deforestation, both with its potential inclusion in the Kyoto Protocol, and through a handy sourcebook for practitioners working on the topic.
Sharing news, reports or updates from you are the main reason for this newsletter. Don’t miss current updates from our Tropical America Katoomba members, articles from the Ecosystem Marketplace, and news from our East and Southern Africa Katoomba partners across the ocean in this edition. If you missed our first newsletter from December 2006 that included important information on TAKG initiatives, don’t hesitate to check it out online (English, Español). Our next newsletter will update you on decisions taken with the TAKG Steering Committee in Cartagena later this month.
We welcome your feedback and look forward to your input on how the activities and communications of the network can be useful to you. Contact us at TAfirstname.lastname@example.org with any questions, comments or suggestions!
Tropical America Katoomba Group
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
KATOOMBA GROUP MEMBER NEWS AND INITIATIVESPES NEWS FROM ACROSS THE OCEANRELATED FOREST TRENDS PROGRAMSSELECTED NEWS ON PESNEW PUBLICATIONSRESOURCES AND TOOLSEVENTS
KATOOMBA GROUP MEMBER NEWS AND INITIATIVES
Katoomba Exchange: Brazil to Costa Rica
Following the connections made during the Brazil Katoomba meetings in October 2006, a committee from Brazil, comprised of technicians of the “Project for the Recuperation of Riparian Forests” of the Secretariat of Environment and the São Paolo State program of Hydrological Microwatersheds of the Sercretariat of Agriculture made a technical visit to Costa Rica in December 2006. The following is a note from their visit:
“We were received by TAKG Steering Committee member Franz Tattenbach, Executive Director of FUNDECOR (Fundación para el Desarrollo de la Cordillera Volcánica Central), which, together with Forest Engineer Pedro Gonzalez, prepared an excellent working agenda.
During the visit, the Brazilians learned in detail about the program designed with the participation of FUNDECOR and managed by the Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento Forestal (FONAFIFO).
Understanding the successful experience in Costa Rica will help in the design of a Brazilian PES scheme. With adaptations to the local characteristics, it seems possible to make viable the use of PES to produce incentives for conservation and recuperation of forests in São Paulo.”
Intercambio Katoomba: Brasil & Costa Rica (portugues)
Depois de se conhecer na reunião Katoomba em Outubro 2006 em Sao Paulo, uma comitiva do Brasil, formada por 6 técnicos do Projeto de Recuperação de Matas Ciliares da Secretaria do Meio Ambiente e 4 do Programa Estadual de Microbacias Hidrográficas da Secretaria de Agricultura esteve em visita
técnica à Costa Rica no mes de Dezembro 2006. A seguir a nota deles do seu encontro:
"O grupo foi recepcionado por Don Franz Tattenbach, Diretor Executivo de la Fundación para el Desarrollo de la Cordillera Volcánica Central (FUNDECOR) que, em conjunto com o Eng.º Florestal Pedro Gonzalez, proporcionou uma excelente agenda de trabalho.
Durante a estadia os brasileiros puderam conhecer com detalhes o programa desenhado com a participação da FUNDECOR e a estrutura do Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento Forestal (FONAFIFO), apresentada pelo Senhor Oscar Sanchez Chaves, Coordenador de Serviços Ambientais, e equipe.
Conhecer a experiência exitosa da Costa Rica poderá em muito ajudar a desenhar um PSA brasileiro. Com as adequações às especificidades locais, acredita-se ser possível viabilizar um PSA para incentivar a preservação e a recuperação de florestas em São Paulo."
Why ignore tropical deforestation? A proposal for including forest conservation in the Kyoto Protocol
by P. Moutinho, M. Santilli, S. Schwartzman and L. Rodrigues
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Unasylva 222, Vol 56, 2005
Note from author Paulo Moutinho:
“As the Kyoto Protocol currently stands, it has two central deficiencies as an international regime that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), each comprising roughly 25% of the global annual GHG emissions. First, the United States, responsible for about one fourth of annual greenhouse gas emissions globally, has withdrawn from the negotiation. Second, the Protocol has no mechanism for addressing tropical deforestation. Although the role of forests became a very controversial topic during the Kyoto negotiations, there is a growing consensus among scientists, policy makers and NGOs that deforestation must be addressed, as a means to sufficiently reduce global emissions to meet the main goal of the UNFCCC - to avoid dangerous interference in the global climate. What would address such a problem? Certainly, mechanisms that assign economic value to standing forests or that compensate forest peoples and governments for providing ecosystem services.
We believe that such mechanism could be created and implemented under the UNFCCC. Therefore, IPAM, in collaboration with ISA (Instituto Socioambiental), ED (Environmental Defense), WHRC (Woods Hole Research Center) and a network of scientists and NGOs, proposed, during the UNFCCC COP9 in Milan, the concept called “compensated reductions of deforestation” (CR), described in the paper, “Why ignore tropical deforestation? A proposal for including forest conversations in the Kyoto Protocol.” The CR proposal would create a new means for including tropical deforestation in international climate negotiations in a way that could both encourage significant participation of developing countries within the Kyoto framework and create large-scale incentives to reduce deforestation.
Since COP9, efforts to strengthen the discussion of such proposal were made by IPAM and its partners. Side events on this issue were promoted during the COPs and a book called “Tropical deforestation and Climate Change” was published and launched during the COP 11 in Montreal, Canada. Extraordinarily, we currently have this subject officially under discussion and there is a chance to have a mechanism under the UNFCCC to address the emission coming from deforestation in developing countries. In December 2005, during the COP11, the Coalition of Rainforest Nations, led by Papua New Guinea and Costa Rica, proposed placing the emission from deforestation issue on the formal agenda. More recently, at COP12, in Nairobi, Brazilian Government presented a proposal “to provide positive financial incentives for developing countries that voluntarily reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation”. This proposal was based on the concept of compensated reductions of deforestation. Considering that 75% of Brazilian emissions come from deforestation, and that Brazil historically has not been able to reduce tropical deforestation as a valid action to tackle climate change, the proposal launched by Brazilian government represented a tremendous advance. I would like finish saying that people deforest not because they are evil, but because in their economic logic there is no value for standing forest. CR mechanism could change this situation quickly. "
Making Nature Count: Enhancing payments for environmental service (PES) initiatives in Ecuador and Colombia
From Sven Wunder of CIFOR:
The project "Making Nature count: enhancing payments for environmental service (PES) initiatives in Ecuador and Colombia" is coordinated by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and financed mainly by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. It will be running for the next two years (2007-08). One objective of the project is to work with about a half dozen of local PES pilot experiences in the two countries -- some in planning stages, others ongoing -- and support them in the design and implementation processes. Another objective is to provide a forum for exchange of experiences between the stakeholders in the two countries, as well as extract and share lessons from implementation as it progresses: what things are working well, which ones are not, and why?
The project commenced its activities with an inaugural workshop held in the thermal bath of Papallacta near Quito, Ecuador (15-17 January). One purpose of the workshop was an initial stock-taking of PES experiences (including discussion of new proposals), spiced up with invited speakers providing consolidated experiences from beyond the two countries (such as Mexico, Bolivia, and Peru). Second, following a pre-consultation of participants, we discussed in greater detail some selected critical environmental services (e.g. the complexity of watershed services) and PES implementation topics (e.g. contract design, legal context issues, 'bundling' of several services). Third, we debated means of future communication sharing among project participants, including the possibility of extending the existing Ecuadorian PES network RISAS (Red de Interesados e Interesadas en Servicios Ambientales). Finally, a more subtle intention of the workshop was that different PES actors in the two countries get to know each other better, so that they can interact bilaterally to share hints and information that are useful for PES implementation.
CIFOR will over the next month share papers, presentations and a summary report on the CIFOR PES website.
-Link to the project
-Link to the general CIFOR PES website
National PES Workshop - Colombia
From February 14-17, 2007, the national workshop on PES will take place in Cartagena, Colombia. The Ministry of Environment, Territorial Development and Housing, the Special Administrative Unit of the National Parks System, the Association of Regional Autonomous Corporations and Sustainable Development (ASOCARS), the World Wildlife Fund, Conservation International, and the Nature Conservancy, are developing the work together that seeks to construct and offer tools for the understanding and potential development of the theme of ecosystem services in the country.
The meeting is directed towards:
-Directors of productive sector unions of the country
-Directors of public institutions related to the environment (Ministries, Regional Autonomous Corporations and corporations related to sustainable development, Administrative Departments of the Environment, Investigative Institutes, etc)
-Representatives of international cooperative institutions
-Directors of Non-governmental Organizations
With the following results expected:
-Define a strategy to develop the focus of ecosystem services in Colombia
-Identify possible pilot projects with the theme of recognition of ecosystem services
-Establish contact with international collaborators interested in developing the topic in the country
-Generate connections and networks of experts in the subject at a national and international level
Several Tropical America Katoomba Group members will be present and will report back on this workshop in our next newsletter.
Removing the veils in the Social Sciences: Studies of Women and Environment in Ecuador -- a recent publication from Susan Poats, with María Sánchez Cuvi and María Calderón about women and environment in Ecuador.
-ordering information available through Abya Yala Publications
Environmental Services in Coffee in Central America, East Africa and India
January 2007 – El Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE) launched a new program entitled “Connecting, Enhancing and Sustaining Environmental Services and Market Values of Coffee Agroforestry Systems in Central America, East Africa and India” (CAFNET) that seeks to add value to environmental service products of coffee agroforestry systems through participatory research and development activities aiming to improve the well-being of involved communities. More information on this project can be found by clicking here.
PES NEWS FROM ACROSS THE OCEAN
Wetland PES: Using Payments for Environmental Services to Protect Water Quality in the Pallisa District of Uganda
– Montana State University, Wageningen University and Makerere University Joint Research Project
Pallisa District in Eastern Uganda has one of the highest levels of wetland degradation. In this region, 20% of the wetlands have been destroyed compared to 2.8%, 2.4%, and 3.6% in the Central, Northern and Western regions respectively. The Montana State University, Wageningen University and Makerere University Joint Research Project seeks to develop a policy decision support system known as Tradeoff Analysis (TOA) to investigate the economic and institutional feasibility of using environmental service payments (PES) to help farmers protect wetlands in the Pallisa district. The key goal is to test the idea that PES could be an alternative to conventional agricultural and environmental policy tools in poor rural areas. An investigation will be made as to whether it is feasible to use PES to reduce farmers’ encroachment into wetlands, instead of paying government agents to try to enforce environmental regulation. The secondary goal is to quantify the effects of PES on poverty and compare the effects to traditional agricultural and environmental policy instruments. Academic and Research personnel at Makerere University have been trained on the Tradeoff Analysis and application.
The TOA tool has already been tested in the Machakos District of Kenya. For more information, contact Imelda Nalukenge, Makerere University - firstname.lastname@example.org
Africa Group Meeting of the Task Force on Protected Areas, Equity and Livelihoods
- Entebbe, Uganda
On January 18 and 19 2007, Uganda hosted the first Africa Group Meeting of The Task Force on Protected Areas, Equity and Livelihoods of the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), a meeting attended by several Katoomba members The task force is mandated under WCPA’s strategic direction #4 on Governance, Equity and Livelihoods. Among the topics that the task force intends to tackle is Equitable Payments for Ecosystem Services.
The Task Force has three specific objectives:
1. To promote a better and more widely shared understanding of the linkages between protected areas, social equity, including poverty and poverty eradication, and sustainable development.
2. To strengthen provisions for social equity in regional and global conservation policy related to protected areas, with particular emphasis on the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
3. To achieve more equitable outcomes in the implementation of regional and global conservation policy related to protected areas, with particular emphasis on the CBD.
The Task Force will be sub-divided into three regional groups – Africa, Latin America, and Asia - but working to a common set of core objectives, activities and outputs. For the most part, these activities will be implemented by sub-groups of individuals rather than the regional group as a whole. Sub-groups working on a particular activity and outputs may include other relevant experts who are not members of the Task Force. In some cases these sub-groups may be inter-regional. For more information contact Phil Franks, CARE International - email@example.com
RELATED FOREST TRENDS PROGRAMS
From the Katoomba Group’s Ecosystem Marketplace
Check out the Katoomba Group's Ecosystem Marketplace for the latest PES news and most recent newsletters from the Ecosystem Marketplace:
-The Community Forum
Spanish and Portuguese versions of the Ecosystem Marketplace, http://www.mercadosambientales.com/demo/demo.index.php and http://www.mercadosambientais.com/ will also continue to evolve in the coming months to continually meet the information needs of the broader public interested in ecosystem service markets. http://www.mercadosambientales.com/demo/demo.index.php, based in Mexico and directed by Reforestamos Mexico, will soon launch their first newsletter. To receive the newsletter, please email Claudia Lechuga at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Don't forget to look at Ecosystem Marketplace articles. Below is a selection from the files. Remember, you are always invited to contribute opinion pieces you have written relating to PES and recommendations of people for the Ecosystem Marketplace to profile. Please send your articles in English, Spanish or Portuguese, to Rachel Miller at email@example.com.
-What’s the buzz? Ecosystem services and coffee by Erik Ness
-Vanderlei de Castro: Bringing Brazil’s Cerrado Back to Life by Alice Kenney
-Conservation incentives start to take off in Brazil by José Alberto Gonçalves
-Brazil’s Unpaid Guardians by Mary Allegretti
Communities and Markets
The Communities and Markets program of Forest Trends continues to develop and strengthen the Community Advisory Group, which will serve as an advisory body to guide and inform the work of the program, particularly in increasing the capacity of communities to benefit from payments for ecosystem services. A focused discussion on this work will take place during the TAKG’s steering committee meeting in Cartagena, Colombia, in February. If you are interested in participating in the Community Advisory Group, please contact Beto Borges at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The program is moving ahead to develop a “Community Portal” tab within the Ecosystem Marketplace site designed to engage communities in markets for ecosystem services by providing information such as toolkits, resource guides and directories.
The Community Forum newsletter, a publication of the Communities and Markets Program that provides information and resources for communities engaged in payments for ecosystem services throughout the world, is entering its second year of publication. We would like to gain a better understanding of how the Community Forum is being utilized and how we may improve it to better serve the needs of our readers. To accomplish this we will be sending a survey to our readers in the coming weeks. If you would like to receive the Community Forum, click here to sign up.
The Communities and Markets program seeks to integrate the interests of communities throughout the work of Forest Trends and will be working with the Business and Biodiversity Offsets Program (BBOP) to secure a pilot project, potentially in Latin America. BBOP works with companies and others involved in development projects to “offset” the impact of their activities through conservation actions designed to compensate for the unavoidable impact of infrastructure projects on biodiversity.
The latest news coming across the wires from various news and environmental sources.
Dell Launches “Plant a Tree for me” Carbon Offset Initiative
January 2007 -- Dell Computer, in partnership with The Conservation Fund and carbonfund.org, announced the launch of an innovative new program that will allow customers to make a donation to offset the carbon dioxide associated with computer usage. The program, called “Plant a Tree for me”, will allow customers purchasing computers to add in the price of a carbon offset equivalent to the amount of energy required to run a laptop or desktop computer for three years ($2 and $6 respectively).
The donations will go to The Conservation Fund and carbonfund.org, organizations that will plant trees in sustainably managed forests. One hundred percent of the donations received for the program will be used by the partnering organizations to plant trees.
-Visit Dell’s “Plant a Tree for me” website
-Check out Dell’s partners: http://www.carbonfund.org/site/ and The Conservation Fund
Do carbon offsets live up to their promise?
By Moises Velasquez-Manoff
The Christian Science Monitor, January 10, 2007
“...The first-ever ranking of carbon offsetters recently released by Clean Air-Cool Planet, a nonprofit in Portsmouth, N.H., graded 30 companies on a scale of 1 to 10; tellingly, three-quarters scored below 5. Critics, meanwhile, question whether the carbon market might be a dangerous distraction at a time when decisive action is needed to avert climate catastrophe...” (Click here to continue reading)
South America’s Forgotten Grasslands
By Pablo D’Atri
Inter Press Service News Agency, December 2006
“Grasslands provide humanity with "environmental services" worth billions of dollars a year. But only 0.7 percent of the world's grasslands -- and only 0.3 percent of those in South America -- are protected...” (Click title link to continue reading)
Brazilian TV program Cidades e Soluções goes carbon neutral
Cidades e Soluções, a program of “Globo News”, is the first in Brazil to offset emissions generated from its programming. The program focuses on searching for and creating solutions for a more sustainable world, especially focusing on initiatives that can give back to the Brazilian environment. The program partnered with the Green Initiative and received its “Carbon Neutral Seal”, which guarantees that a product, process or event offsets its greenhouse gas emissions through mitigation of emissions and recovery of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Botanical Garden of São Paulo will plant native trees in the Mata Atlantica to offset the emissions of Cidades e Soluções.
-Link to the Green Initiative website with more information on Cidades e Soluções and the Green Initiative Carbon Neutral Seal
Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services
By K. Chan, R. Shaw, D. Cameroon, E. Underwood, G. Daily
PLoS Biol 4(11): e379 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040379; 2006
The report looks at incorporating ecosystem services into conservation planning by analyzing six defined ecosystem services of the central Californian coast ecoregion. Through a clearly defined methodology and process, the authors examine tradeoffs and potential benefits of expanding conservation planning to include ecosystem services with biodiversity, including potential synergies that exist. Based on an initial framework outlined in the text, the authors conclude with five insights to be considered when planning for conservation.
Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation Planning
By R. Naidoo, T. Ricketts
PLoS Biol 4(11): e360 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040360; 2006
In a clearly written and descriptive report, the authors discuss and evaluate how a cost-benefit analysis can be a driver to inform decision making for conservation. Data from the report is based on the Mbaracayu Biosphere Reserve in eastern Paraguay, from which five ecosystem services are defined and evaluated.
The Vittel payments for ecosystem services: the “perfect” PES case? (pdf)
By D. Perrot-Maitre
International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK; 2006
This paper analyses the classic payment for ecosystem service (PES) case implemented by Vittel (Nestlé Waters) in Northern France. The paper evaluates the methodology used by Vittel, participatory processes, and many of the complexities and intricacies involved with establishing PES projects. It is a valuable article for anybody who is working on PES projects to read as it amasses information and knowledge gained over the 10 years in which the project was developed and implemented.
Avoided Deforestation and the Economics of Climate Change
The debate on Avoided Deforestation was taken to a new level during the November 2006 United Nations Framework Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) in Nairobi and is continuing to take a prominent role in discussions. A workshop on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation is in the works for March, where discussion will focus on ongoing and potential policy approaches and incentives, technical and methodological requirements related to the implementation of policies, assessment of results and reliability of results, and an improved understanding of reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries. (Please visit http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/lulucf/items/1084.php for workshop information.) Apart from the article “Why ignore tropical deforestation? A proposal for including forest conversations in the Kyoto Protocol”, the following article explores some of the intricacies involved in the debate.
The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change
Commissioned by the Chancellor of Exchequer and the Prime Minister of the UK,
HM Treasury, 2006
The Stern Review, a global assessment of climate change with a focus on the associated economic realities, provides key insights into many of the challenges facing environmental practitioners, policy makers and land stewards as climate change becomes increasingly high priority on the world stage. With many detailed observations and investigations, the report concludes with four main elements to be included in future negotiations of international frameworks. They are emissions trading, technology cooperation, action to reduce deforestation, and adaptation (related to development policy). Particular chapters that may be of interest include Ch. 7-Projecting the Growth of Greenhouse-Gas Emissions and associated Annex 7.f-Emissions from the Land use sector; Ch. 25-Reversing emissions from land use change.
RESOURCES AND TOOLS
Valuing wetlands: guidance for valuing the benefits derived from wetland ecosystem services (pdf)
By R. De Groot, M. Strip, C. Finlayson, N. Davidson
Ramsar Technical Report No. 3/CBD Technical Series No. 27. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland & Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Canada; 2006
This guide aims to enable better information availability for stakeholders involved with economic valuation and decision-making on wetlands. The report outlines a framework to assist readers in conducting an integrated assessment of wetland ecosystem services, setting out five steps with critical guidance that are essential to the process of undertaking a wetland valuation assessment. The steps touch on the topics of policy, stakeholder, and wetland function analysis, wetland service valuation, and communication of wetlands values.
Socioeconomic Valuation of Wetlands in Latin America and the Caribbean
Stolk, M.E., P.A. Verweij, M. Stuip, C.J. Baker, W. Oosterberg
Wetlands International, Wageningen; 2006
This guide offers a concise look at three fundamental topics related to wetlands including: why are they important? How to define values of wetlands, including direct and indirect usage and values without use such as social and cultural values; and a section on incorporating values into decision-making processes. There are also case studies from throughout Latin America and the Caribbean that offer concrete numbers and associated values of specific wetlands.
-To download the tool from Wetlands International, click here
Sourcebook for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Projects
By T. Pearson, S. Walker, S. Brown
BioCarbon Fund, Winrock International; 2005
This sourcebook is a valuable resource for practitioners seeking to develop and implement land use, land-use change and forestry projects intending to meet the requirements for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. It offers step-wise guidance on CDM regulations and processes, and specifically addresses issues relevant to all CDM projects, including additionality and leakage, eligibility of lands for projects and how to measure and analyze project data.
This sourcebook is intended to be used as a companion to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Good Practice Guidance on Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry publication (2003), which can found at http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_contents.htm.
Payment for Environmental Services: Principles of Design and Implementation
Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñaza (CATIE), Costa Rica
May 28 – June 1, 2007
Objective: Develop a theoretical and practical point of view for general principles of design and implementation of PES schemes. Water, at the national and international level will be a key theme, and the course will emphasize the development of PES schemes that enhance the availability and quality of water for specific uses. The course will also focus on biophysical, economic, social and institutional aspects of PES. For more information, click here.
Developing Rural Enterprises Diploma Course Module 1: Foundations for Small Producer Enterprise Organizations
Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñaza (CATIE), Costa Rica
May 21-June 1, 2007
Objective: Participants will learn concepts, innovative methodologies and practical tools to facilitate the initial stages of small producer enterprise organizations.
Financing of Forest Conservation: PES in the Tropics
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, USA
March 2-3, 2007
Objective: The conference will serve as a forum to discuss the various types of payment for environmental services, the issues associated with each type, and the successes and failures to date.