January 2007

Dear Katoomba Members,

Happy New Year and Greetings from the East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group!

Welcome to the second edition of the East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group e-newsletter.  

We are looking forward to a very productive 2007. In the coming months, one of the main activities that the East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group participating countries will focus on is updating national PES inventories that were compiled in 2005 in order feed into both national and regional strategic discussions about to most effectively demonstrate PES on the ground and to increase the ‘pipeline’ of new PES deals related to carbon, water, and biodiversity. The analysis will identify a select number of the most promising potential payments for ecosystem services that demonstrate ‘proof of concept’ at both the national and regional level.  The inventory updates is one of the recommendations that came out of the regional Katoomba meeting that was held in Cape Town in November last year.

In this newsletter, we have included a few stories from Africa that have featured on the Katoomba Group’s Ecosystem Marketplace – www.ecosystemmarketplace.com. We continue to share with you news from the region and news from our other partners.

If you have a news item or are working on a project that you wish to share with members of our network, please send it to us at aruhweza@forest-trends.org

We welcome feedback, comments and suggestions on how to make the newsletter better for you.

Yours sincerely

Alice Ruhweza
Coordinator, East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group.




3. A FRICA NEWS FROM THE ECOSYSTEM MARKETPLACE www.ecosystemmarketplace.com




National PES Inventory Updates

In 2005 and 2006, Forest Trends commissioned country-level inventories of payments for ecosystem services (PES) in select East and Southern African nations. Inventories were completed in Uganda, Kenya and South Africa in September 2005, while Tanzania’s and Madagascar's Inventories were completed in June 2006 and December 2006 respectively. The overall goal was to “take stock” of the current status of ecosystem service payments, markets and capacity, while also highlighting the gaps and needs that exist to expand PES in the region. The resulting inventories provide baseline data that can inform strategies to expand payments and markets related to ecosystem services.

Updates of the inventories will be launched soon to include new PES deals related to carbon, water, and biodiversity and a market demand analysis. The analysis will entail Identifying a few potential PES deals may be scaled-up and will result in national and regional level ‘proof of concept.’ The inventories are available at www.katoombagroup.org/africa


Malawi Launches Programme on Tree Planting and Management for Carbon Sequestration

On January 17th, 2007, the Government of Malawi launched a programme on ‘Tree Planting and Management for Carbon Sequestration and Other Ecosystems Services’ at the Capital Hotel in Lilongwe. The Programme aims to increase the area under forest cover in Malawi with a view to enhance carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services that have potential to reduce green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere.  The Programme which has received a lot of support and input from the Katoomba Group, right from its inception and development, is expected to result in sustainable management and conservation of trees and forests and help improve household incomes from the carbon trade, thereby contribute to the welfare of people and reduce poverty. The programme shall involve the promotion of tree planting by households and institutions. The promotion, which will be supported by government to the tune of MK2 billion over a period of five years, is expected to increase the forest cover by a minimum of 4,000 hectares per year

The launch drew over 400 delegates including development partners such as the EU, USAID, UNDP, and FAO, cabinet ministers, their deputies and senior government officials.  At hand to witness the launch were also representatives of the private sector.  For more information, contact Sosten Chiotha – schiotha@chanco.unima.mw


IResearch Project on Evidence-Based Frameworks for Valuation, Attribution and Compensation for Environmental Services

A research project is being proposed to produce tools and approaches for valuing environmental services (ES), specifically carbon sequestration, watershed protection and biodiversity management in Transboundary forests in Kenya, Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Appropriate approaches for valuing ES within the East and Central Africa (ECA) region are limited at present. The project, funded by the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) proposes to develop policy on procedures and legal framework for making users, such as local governments and water companies, pay for use of ES and mechanisms that ensure equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders in resource management to consumption continuum that is yet to be put in place in most countries in the region. In addition, the project would develop capacity of stakeholders, including resource managers and investors in ECA to improve their competitiveness in the emerging global ES markets. The expected results include production of validated frameworks for valuation, attribution and compensation of environmental services for use in the identified ecosystems and ECA region. The capacity of relevant stakeholders for the delivery of ecosystem services will be strengthened and information on approaches for valuation.  It is expected that the compensation mechanisms for environmental services will be disseminated to relevant stakeholders for use within the ECA region. Policy briefs to guide development of policies and legal frameworks for compensation and equitable distribution of proceeds from ES will be circulated key stakeholders in the production to consumption continuum of ES. Several Katoomba members from East Africa will participate in the project. For more information contact Humphrey Omondi hro.opiyo@hotmail.com


Using Payments for Environmental Services to Protect Water Quality in the Pallisa District of Uganda – Montana State University, Wageningen University and Makerere University Joint Research Project
Pallisa District in Eastern Uganda has one of the highest levels of wetland degradation. In this region, 20% of the wetlands have been destroyed compared to 2.8%, 2.4%, and 3.6% in the Central, Northern and Western regions respectively. The Montana State University, Wageningen University and Makerere University Joint Research Project seeks to develop a policy decision support system known as Tradeoff Analysis (TOA) to investigate the economic and institutional feasibility of using environmental service payments (PES) to help farmers to protect wetlands in Pallisa district.  The key goal is to test the idea that PES could be an alternative to conventional agricultural and environmental policy tools in poor rural areas. An investigation will be made as to whether it is feasible to use PES to reduce farmers’ encroachment into wetlands, instead of paying government agents to try to enforce environmental regulation. The secondary goal is to quantify the effects of PES on poverty and compare the effects to traditional agricultural and environmental policy instruments.  Academic and Research personnel at Makerere University have been trained on the Tradeoff Analysis and application
The TOA tool has already been tested in the Machakos District of Kenya. . For more information contact Imelda Nalukenge, Makerere University - nalukenge@agric.mak.ac.ug


Africa Group Meeting of the Task Force on Protected Areas, Equity and Livelihoods - Entebbe, Uganda
On January 18th and 19th 2007, Uganda hosted the first Africa Group Meeting of The Task Force on Protected Areas, Equity and Livelihoods of the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). The task force is mandated under WCPA’s strategic direction #4 on Governance, Equity and Livelihoods. Among the topics that the task force hopes to discuss is Equitable Payments for Ecosystem Services.  Several Katoomba members participated in the meeting.
 The Task Force has three specific objectives:

  1. To promote a better and more widely shared understanding of the linkages between protected areas, social equity, including poverty and poverty eradication, and sustainable development.
  2. To strengthen provisions for social equity in regional and global conservation policy related to protected areas, with particular emphasis on the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  3. To achieve more equitable outcomes in the implementation of regional and global conservation policy related to protected areas, with particular emphasis on the CBD.

The Task Force will be sub-divided into three regional groups – Africa, Latin America, and Asia - but working to a common set of core objectives, activities and outputs.  For the most part these activities will be implemented by sub-groups of individuals rather than the regional group as a whole.  Sub-groups working on a particular activity and outputs may include other relevant experts who are not members of the Task Force.  In some cases these sub-groups may be inter-regional. For more information contact Phil Franks, CARE International - phil@ci.or.ke


World Agroforestry Center Hosts Dialog on Business and Ecosystems in Nairobi
On January 12, 2007, The World Agro-Forestry Center (ICRAF) in partnership with the Earthwatch Institute hosted a dialog on Business and Ecosystems. Towards New Partnerships for Ecosystem Management at the ICRAF Campus on Nairobi.  During this dialog, a publication entitled " Business and Ecosystems: Challenges and Implications by Earthwatch Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, IUCN and World Resources Institute was launched. The launch of this publication provided an opportunity for greater dialog on ecosystem management in Kenya and an opportunity for collaboration between private business and other stakeholders for sustainable ecosystem management. Several Katoomba members from Kenya participated in the meeting. For more contact Thomas Yatich at the World Agroforestry Center -  t.yatich@cgiar.org


Family Tree: The Green Belt Movement's Wangari Maathai and Wanjira Mathai
For nearly three decades, the Green Belt Movement has worked to improve livelihoods in Kenya. The movement's founder, Wangari Maathai, was the first environmentalist to win the Nobel Peace Prize.  Wanjira Mathai, Wangari's daughter, runs the movement's international relations and communications. The Ecosystem Marketplace caught up with Maathai to learn about the mother-daughter team's pioneering work. For more on this article – please visit www.ecosystemmarketplace.com


Can Payments for Ecosystem Services Contribute to the Improvement of Rural Livelihoods?
Chief Ngangomhlaba Matanzima of the Eastern Cape House of Traditional Leaders addressed the East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group in Cape Town, South Africa. The Chief talked about how Payments for Ecosystem services can improve rural livelihoods in the Eastern Cape. For a full text of his speech visit http://ecosystemmarketplace.com/


Lessons Learned from the Government of South Africa’s Department of Water Affairs and Forestry Working for Water Programme
Professor Kader Asmal, a Member of Parliament in South Africa and the founder of the Working for Water Programme, spoke to the East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group in Cape Town about the Working for Water Programme – its successes and challenges.  For a full text of his speech, visit http://ecosystemmarketplace.com/


Dell Launches 'Plant a Tree for Me' Campaign –Source: GreenBiz.com, 10 January 2007 –
Dell Computer has announced a global carbon-neutral initiative that plants trees for customers to offset the carbon impact of electricity required to power their systems.  The program offers customers the opportunity to offset the emissions associated with the electricity used to power their computers through its ‘Plant a Tree for Me' program. Dell is partnering with The Conservation Fund and Carbonfund.org, nonprofit organizations that will use the funds to plant trees in sustainably managed forests, absorbing carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere from generated electricity. The company said that 100 percent of the donations received by the “Plant a Tree for Me” program will be used by partners to facilitate planting trees.

A customer donation of $2 for a notebook and $6 for a desktop will go toward the planting of trees which will absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, offsetting the equivalent emissions resulting from the production of electricity used during the average three-year use of a computer.

The program will be available to any consumer for any brand of computer in the US in February and to global consumers in April. For more information visit www.dell.com/earth.This article is reproduced with kind permission of GreenBiz.com


International Conference on "Desertification and the International Policy Imperative” held on 17-19 December 2006 in Algiers (Algeria) Explores the Potential of PES to combat desertification
Participants at the conference convened by the United Nations University and other international agencies to mark the end of the UN International Year of Deserts and Desertification considered the possible creation of systems for payments for environmental services in order to combat desertification and reduce climate change. Participants highlighted that dry rangelands, if managed well, provide environmental services (i.e. wind erosion protection, conservation of biodiversity, soil carbon sequestration, and water productivity) and suggested that payments to those who produce such services could be considered as a means to reverse land degradation in semi-arid and arid areas of West Asia and North Africa. However, to be able to evaluate the potential benefits of healthy rangelands and identify who should pay for those benefits, scientific knowledge of both the assessment of land rehabilitation and environmental services has to improve, and numerous questions remain. For example, since most of the rangelands in arid regions are common-pool or open access resources, the task of determining who bears the costs of proper rangeland management and who should receive the payments will be difficult. The use of financial services to combat desertification is a response to the view that socio-economic and market factors are a major driver of the unsustainable land use practices that cause land degradation.
The meeting documents are available at http://www.inweh.unu.edu/inweh/drylands/IYDD.htm.


Several Katoomba members including the East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group Coordinator participated in the Private Sector-WWF Forum on Ecosystem Services and Payments for Ecosystem Services in Vienna.  With over 30 participants from the private sector, government and civil society, discussions covered lessons learned and new ideas from a variety of perspectives: from participants' experiences in on-going payment for ecosystem services, to scaling-up current and future payments for ecosystem services - geographically and/or politically.   Several new and upcoming funding opportunities were unveiled, such as the freshly launched EU Business and Biodiversity Initiative and the GEF's Private-Public Partnership program. 

In 2007, the Forum's organizing team plan to share the Vienna discussion with PES practitioners and other stakeholders in 4-page document entitled “Business, NGOs and Development Agencies Discuss PES. For more information, please visit  wwf.panda.org/mpo or directly click on the link: http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/policy/macro_economics/index.cfm?uNewsID=88060


1-2 February, 2007 - NCSE's 7TH NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SCIENCE, POLICY AND THE ENVIRONMENT - for more information visit http://tinyurl.com/ym67nd

5-9 February 2007: TWENTY-FOURTH SESSION OF THE UNEP GOVERNING COUNCIL/GLOBAL MINISTERIAL ENVIRONMENT FORUM. (NAIROBI, KENYA).  GC-24/GMEF will focus on the emerging policy issues of globalisation and the environment, as well as the United Nations reform process. For further information see http://www.unep.org/gc/gc24/.

3 - 4 May 2007: "INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY & DEVELOPMENT IN EAST AFRICA”. This Conference will be held at the National Museums of Kenya. The conference is part of the plans for the formation of an East Africa wide professional body -Ecological Society of East Africa (ESEA). For comments and enquiries, contact : Dr. Nicholas O. Oguge, Earthwatch Institute, Email: noguge@earthwatch.org  or Dr. Nathan Gichuki, University of Nairobi; Email: ngichuki@uonbi.ac.ke,  

12-14 September, 2007 - ENVIROINFO 2007. The main goal of the Conference is the presentation and popularization of methods, tools, technologies, best practice and case studies developed recently in the world in Environmental Protection. Detailed information about the Conference can be found on www.enviroinfo2007.org



As climate change negotiations progress and the global market for carbon credits continues to grow, it is becoming more likely that community-based organizations will be able to enter the market. Many types of conservation projects, from soil conservation to forest management, sequester carbon.  But how are such projects designed and monitored?  And once the obstacles of capturing and measuring the carbon sequestered have been overcome, what is the best way to make links with markets?  A number of guides and manuals have been developed specifically for use by community-based organizations interested in implementing these types of projects.  The following is only a short list!  We will continue to provide links to these and other guides in future editions.

  • A Guide to Monitoring Carbon storage in Forestry and Agro Forestry Projects by K. G. Macdicken
    This guide from Winrock International very clearly outlines the steps and resources needed to complete an inventory of carbon storage in forest and agroforest systems and provides useful tips for ways of adapting these techniques according to the land use type to be measured.  Forms that can be used to gather and organize data are found in an appendix. Available in PDF format at http://tinyurl.com/y9hhyb
    •  Assessing Carbon Stocks and Modeling Win-Win Scenarios of Carbon Sequestration Through Land-Use Changes by Raul Ponce-Hernandez
      Though this manual from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is not as clearly written or organized as the Winrock guide, it does include important information about integrating assessments of carbon sequestration potential with analysis of various indicators of land degradation. Download the manual at  http://tinyurl.com/ygr7qb
    •  Financing Options for Carbon Sequestration Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism by Sandra Brown, Ian Noble, and Benoit Bosquet
      This timely article clearly defines the three major markets for carbon sequestration credits.  It is a must read for anyone wishing to understand the often confusing and ever-changing world of climate change policy and carbon markets. Available in PDF format online at http://tinyurl.com/y7sql5
    •  Exploring the Market for Voluntary Carbon Offsets by Nadaa Taiyab
      The voluntary carbon market is currently the most accessible means for community-based organizations to sell carbon offset credits.  This very well researched report answers such questions as where to find voluntary buyers of carbon credits, how much they are willing to pay, and the protocols available for verifying amount of carbon sequestered.
      Available in PDF format online at  http://tinyurl.com/wo9rk

Authors: Evans, K., et. al.
Produced by: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) (2006)
This toolkit contains a collection of participatory tools for environment and development practitioners, researchers, and local government leaders for promoting sustainable forest management and empowerment of forest- dependent communities. The tools have many applications, including stakeholder identification, decision making, planning, conflict management, and information collection.

The guide gives an idea of each tools' basic capabilities, in order to help identify the most appropriate tool for a given situation. References for further information is provided, as the guide does not provide an exhaustive description of how to use each tool- it is only intended as an introduction and comparative overview.

The guide is divided into three main sections:

  • Concepts: a brief discussion about forest communities, participation, participatory tools, pitfalls of participatory tools and related concepts
  • Guidelines for tool selection: a summary description of each tool, considerations when selecting a tool and a comparative matrix for help in finding the right tool
  • Toolbox: details about the tools in a table format. Each tool has a general description, strengths and limitations, practical considerations, an example and resources for more information.

The first section may be particularly useful for those who are new to participatory tools, and readers who have a clear idea of their objectives for using a participatory tools may find it easiest to start with 'guidelines for tool selection'.
Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/rdr.cfm?doc=DOC12322

This guide aims to assist Ramsar-Convention stakeholders in having economic valuation information better available for decision-making on wetlands. The report outlines a framework which should assist readers to conduct an integrated assessment of wetland ecosystem services, and it sets out five key steps in undertaking a wetland valuation assessment. Available online at http://www.eldis.org/cf/search/disp/DocDisplay.cfm?Doc=DOC23371. If you would like a PDF copy emailed to you directly, contact aruhweza@forest-trends.org

Available online at http://www.winrock.org/Ecosystems/files/Winrock-BioCarbon_Fund_Sourceboo
k-compressed.pdf.  If you would like a PDF copy sent to you directly, please contact aruhweza@forest-trends.org



Authors: Zilberman, D.; Lipper, L.; McCarthy, N.
Produced by: Agricultural and Development Economics Division (ESA), FAO (2006)

This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework to analyse the conditions under which PES programmes can serve to reduce poverty. The paper models the impact of PES programmes on three categories of the poor - the urban poor, landless, and poor landowners. It considers the impact on these groups of two types of PES programs: programs where lands are diverted from agricultural production to other land uses; and those where lands remain in agriculture but production activities are modified to achieve environmental objectives.

The analysis concludes that there is a wide array of circumstances where PES can both promote environmental quality and reduce poverty. However, the impact on the poor will vary considerably depending on the local circumstances of the poor.
Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/rdr.cfm?doc=DOC22794

Authors: Moutinho, P.; Santilli, S.; Schwartzman, S.; Rodrigues, L
Produced by: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2005)

This paper argues that though greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the principal causes of global warming, tropical deforestation is responsible for 20 to 25 percent of annual global carbon dioxide emissions. However, the Kyoto Protocol has not adopted any mechanism for considering tropical forest conservation or prevention of deforestation as an action for mitigating climate change. Because the Kyoto Protocol does not address forest conservation or prevention of deforestation, tropical countries that have large areas of tropical forests and a so-called "clean" energy matrix (i.e. many renewable energy sources and low use of fossil fuels) or low energy consumption are restricted in their opportunities to benefit from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
The paper proposes that developing countries that elect to reduce their emissions from deforestation during the five years of the first commitment period would receive financial compensation for the emissions avoided, based on the average market value of carbon in 2012.
The paper concludes that for governments as for private actors in tropical forest areas, there are more economic incentives for deforestation than for leaving forest standing. Forest protection implies high costs and few tangible returns. Compensating both private parties and governments for forest conservation would provide positive economic value for standing forest.
 Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/rdr.cfm?doc=DOC15001

 Produced by Earthwatch Institute (Europe), the World Conservation Union (IUCN), the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), and the World Resources Institute (WRI), November 2006.

This publication compiles global scientific facts and projections from the UN's multi-year Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and interviews with a range of business leaders to assess the implications and strategies needed to respond to environmental challenges. Companies use ecosystem services, and that use alters the ecosystems and their ability to provide services. This publication discusses the challenges inherent in the use of ecosystem services and the implications for business. The publication is available online at http://www.wbcsd.org/.

THE ECOLOGICAL FISHPRINT OF NATIONS MEASURING HUMANITY'S IMPACT ON MARINE ECOSYSTEMS. By John Talberth, Karen Wolowicz, Jason Venetoulis, Michel Gelobter, Paul Boyle and Bill Mott. Redefining Progress, November 2006.

The report adapts the popular Ecological Footprint tool to measure humanity's impact on marine ecosystems. The Fishprint measures the amount of ocean area needed to sustain the consumption patterns of individual nations and the world as a whole. The report is available online at http://www.rprogress.org/newpubs/2006/FishprintofNations2006.pdf.


This brief offers clear steps that guide early assessments and enable corporate decision makers to become educated consumers within voluntary carbon markets. The report outlines procedures and resources for exploring the range of market opportunities, assessing risks, evaluating costs and sellers, communicating your company's actions, and more. Available on line at www.ecosystemmarketplace.com

Author:  Joost Kanan

This book is a reference tool for industry participants in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, power generators, emissions/commodity traders, brokers, carbon investment vehicles, hedge funds, consultants, lawyers, policy makers. Key topics include: Motivation of carbon buyers & sellers;      Industry vs. financial participants in the carbon market;  Relationship between carbon price and coal, gas, oil and power markets; Major supply and demand factors; Market inefficiencies; Taxation and legal issues; Interaction between EU allowances, CDM and JI credits; Potential impact of Japanese, US and other carbon markets. To order, please click here <http://www.environmental-finance.com/envfin/_forms/carbtrad.htm> Or E-mail:    info@environmental-finance.com;