April 2007

Dear Katoomba Members,

Greetings and welcome to the fifth edition of the East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group e-newsletter.

Our newsletter aims to keep our readers aware of the latest news about the network, to reinforce the links between members and to inform members about events and initiatives relating to payments for ecosystem services (PES) around the world.

We welcome your feedback, comments and suggestions including any articles that you may wish to share with our readers. Please send them by e-mail to aruhweza@forest-trends.org

Yours sincerely

Yours sincerely

Alice Ruhweza
Coordinator, East and Southern Africa Katoomba Group.









Seeking Regional Data for the State and Trends of the Voluntary Carbon Markets Report

In response to the lack of quantitative data publicly available for the voluntary carbon markets, the Katoomba Group’s Ecosystem Marketplace, in collaboration with New Carbon Finance, is producing the world's first State and Trends of the Voluntary Carbon Markets report. This report will contain facts and figures on prices and volumes traded in the voluntary market, as well as an analysis of current trends on buyer motivations.

We are in the midst of collecting data from both the buy-side and sell-side of the market on the size, prices, and nature of transactions in the voluntary market. We believe the provision of information will play a critical role in strengthening the validity and functioning of voluntary carbon markets. We're striving to include the range of institutional buyers and sellers around the world shaping these markets.

If you know organizations that are buyers or sellers of offsets who would be willing to share their experiences and / or you are willing to help circulate the report survey, please contact our Carbon Program Manager, Katherine Hamilton, at khamilton@ecosystemmarketplace.com



Tree Talk Project in Uganda exploring sale of carbon credits

Tree Talk was started in 2002 by The Straight Talk Foundation (STF) in partnership with the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), as a conservation education initiative. It operated by sending newspapers and tree seeds to 18,000 schools, churches and other institutions countrywide. This led to many new trees being planted and awareness on tree growing created in schools all over Uganda. In 2006, the program was scaled up to start a woodlot establishment project in 227 schools where 244,000 trees were planted in northern and northeastern Uganda.

The Tree Planting Project (known as Tree Talk Plus) aims to create 1-acre woodlots for fuel wood, and to provide amenity trees to enhance the immediate school environment throughout parts of Uganda. In 2007, Tree Talk plans to work with 255 schools planting 250,000 trees in northern Uganda.  The plan is to have a woodlot in every school in Uganda. 

The project is currently exploring opportunities to tap into the growing carbon markets. A recent evaluation of the project by the Uganda Carbon Bureau shows that there is potential, but engaging in these markets would require considerably improved record keeping. In addition, voluntary markets are the most promising, as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market requires demonstration that the tree planting would not have taken place in the absence of the carbon finance (the additionality principle). However, even within the voluntary carbon market, any carbon finance raised can be easily spent on the cumbersome process of raising it, leaving little for the tree planter. In an effort to minimize these costs, a promising alternative is to participate in the development of a local carbon offset market through which carbon credits can be sold to locally based organisations wanting to neutralise their carbon footprints. For example, a CDM-compliant small-scale tree planting methodology for use in Uganda is being developed, and the project aims to be one of the early users of this methodology. The evaluators propose that the most likely opportunities for raising carbon finance to support further school woodlots should involve the schools that have successfully passed through the 3-year Tree Talk Plus project. They will thereby have established a track record that will help establish the risk of their future plantings to carbon offset purchasers.

For more information and to find out how you can assist this project, please contact Simon Peter Amunau (spamunau@straighttalkuganda.org) or Cathy Watson (cwatson@straighttalkuganda.org)


Dr. Jane Goodall Finds Common Ground for Chimps and Coffee in Tanzania
Source CSRwire; -April 16, 2007

Coffee lovers are now able to help preserve chimp habitat with every sip of their daily brew. This is made possible by the latest coffee from Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc - “Gombe Reserve” which was launched in cooperation with The Jane Goodall Institute.

The coffee is grown by members of the Kalinzi Cooperative, a group of 2,700 small-scale farmers who live near Gombe National Park in Tanzania. The park is the site of Dr. Goodall's groundbreaking research into chimp behavior, and the world's longest-running field study of a wild chimpanzee group continues there today.

Just outside the park, however, social and economic pressures are closing in. A burgeoning human population struggling to survive has effectively deforested the land all around Gombe National Park. And this area is not alone. Chimpanzees in the wild are on the brink of extinction. At the turn of the last century, about 1 million chimpanzees lived in 25 countries across western and central Africa. Today, their number has dwindled to perhaps fewer than 200,000, with significant populations found in only four countries.

Coffee can help provide a solution. Because coffee beans thrive under the shade of a forest canopy, they grow in harmony with chimps. Coffee farming gives farmers an incentive to preserve the forest, and a chance at economic stability.

"Our effort to involve local citizens in restoring the forests and practicing sustainable agriculture is the most important work we can do to ensure a future for the Gombe chimpanzees and the people of Africa," said Dr. Goodall.

"Gombe Reserve" is sold through Green Mountain Coffee Roasters. "Green Mountain Coffee Roasters has always had a values-driven approach to coffee, believing that coffee can help the greater good. We're thrilled to work with the Jane Goodall Institute to bring this great coffee to market and, ultimately, protect the chimps," she said. "Gombe Reserve--In Cooperation with the Jane Goodall Institute" will be available for a limited time on the Web at www.GreenMountainCoffee.com/Gombe.

For more information see http://www.businesswire.com/cgi-bin/mmg.cgi?eid=5377239
or contact Sandy Yusen, Director of Public Relations; Green Mountain Coffee Roasters
Tele: +1-866-968-2739 or Nona Gandelman, The Jane Goodall Institute Tele: + 1 703-682-9220

Copyright Business Wire 2007


Uganda’s Cultural Heritage Exchange Center Seeking Buyers for Cultural/Spiritual Ecosystem Services

Cultural Heritage Exchange Center (CHEC) is an indigenous Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) which aims to conserve the important culture and cultural symbols in Uganda, while also developing opportunities for income generation from the cultural resources to benefit different social groups, with emphasis on the poor.

Culture includes customs, traditions, beliefs, values, languages and literary arts, performing and visual arts. Cultural symbols include: monuments (such as rock paintings, carvings, inscriptions and other tangible heritages like art and antiquities); objects of archeological, palaeontological, ethnographical or historical interest, fossils remains of man, animals and plants sites, forests, water bodies and wildlife.
Research by CHEC shows  most of the cultural symbols are fast being destroyed and degraded due to economic growth pressures, privatization, high population growth and poverty. CHEC wishes to put an end to this destruction by for example, creating a sustainable market for them. There is already a growing market for wood carvings, pottery and crafts. CHEC would like to make this more formalized by developing a database of information on culture which would be accessible to researchers, students, planners and any other interested users. A small fee would be charged for access to this information. The revenue would go back to restoration and preservation of the cultural symbols and sites. There will also be a small fee charged for entry to the sites where applicable – and in some cases for membership . These funds will also go towards preservation

Beneficiaries from this project include communities adjacent to the sites who will have markets for their handicrafts and other art pieces, individuals who will secure employment at the various sites, Central and Local Governments and communities, that will earn revenue from cultural activities, owners of indigenous knowledge, Cultural/Traditional Institutions, Education Institutions, herbalists, spiritualists, cultural practitioners, academicians, students of sociology, politicians, researchers, government departments and agencies that need information on culture and cultural symbols in Uganda.
For more information and to find out how you can help, please contact Darius Kabona at Email: checkulture­_ug@yahoo.com


The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) now supporting 84 biodiversity conservation projects in the Eastern Arc and Coastal Forests of Kenya and Tanzania

Since, CEPF began its investment in the region in 2003 they have received over 300 applications for support. Applicants have included national and international non-governmental organisations, community based organisations, research institutions, individuals with an interest in conservation and commercial companies. The result is a portfolio of projects that cover more than 50 outcome sites where 311 threatened species occur.

FUNDING IS STILL AVAILABLE FOR COMMUNITY BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION GRANTS AND CONSERVATION RESEARCH GRANTS FOR STUDENTS. Community Biodiversity Conservation Grants are designed to support community-based organisations to undertake activities that will improve their livelihoods and contribute to the conservation of the Eastern Arc or Coastal Forests of Kenya or Tanzania. Conservation Research Grants for Students are designed for postgraduate students, undertaking field work within the Eastern Arc or Coastal Forests.

For further information please see http://cepf.tfcg.org/grant.html.  Details of all the projects being supported by CEPF are available at www.cepf.net  including the final reports for those projects that have been completed.


Biodiversity-based industries, such as ecotourism, can provide more income, education, and job opportunities than farming in Namibia

During the fifth session of the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention to combat desertification on 12-21 March 2007, Namibia made a presentation on investment in rural areas in the context of combating land degradation and desertification. Namibia stressed that biodiversity-based industries such as ecotourism provided more income, education, and job opportunities than farming in Namibia's marginal agricultural land. Namibia said that policies promoting a high "tradable value" for indigenous biodiversity increased investment in sustainable use of natural resources.
The report of the fifth session of the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC-5) will be used to produce a series of recommendations for the eighth Conference of the Parties (COP-8) to the UNCCD, to be held from 3-14 September 2007, in Madrid, Spain. Proposals adopted included "giving priority to preventive policies and specific activities in the areas of agriculture and forestry, land tenure and promotion of agricultural trade" and the consideration of "potential gender-sensitive income-generating opportunities offered by drylands, such as national parks, community conservancies, wildlife farming, indigenous biodiversity production and ecotourism developments."

The meeting documents are available at http://www.unccd.int/cop/officialdocs/cric5/doclist.php



Futuro Forestal and CO2OL-USA receive certification under the comprehensive New Standard for Forestry-based Carbon Projects
Source: (CSRwire) ; March 29, 2007

Futuro Forestal and CO2OL-USA announced that they are the first private forestry services company worldwide to achieve certification under the new, comprehensive, Carbon Forestry Project Standards promulgated by the Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA). The CCBA is a partnership between research institutions, corporations and environmental groups, including BP, Conservation International, Intel and the Nature Conservancy. The CCBA Standards demonstrate how well-designed land-management projects can deliver compelling financial, environmental and sustainable development benefits in addition to combating climate change.

Futuro Forestal (www.futuroforestal.com) reforests degraded and abandoned lands with native forest species, and actively incorporates biodiversity and social issues into the design of its activities. The project’s use of native forest species, organic fertilizer, hand tools, and change of land use from cattle ranching, have led to improved soil and fresh-water quality, reduced erosion, improved estuarine water quality in the mangrove ecosystem, and improved biodiversity habitat and corridors. In addition, the project is providing new skills training and employment for local communities, which has helped reverse the emigration trend to city slums from rural communities. The company is also working towards improved transparency in community-based governance and the construction of social infrastructure. Currently, the company manages over 700 hectares of reforested land in Panama, with more than 4,000 hectares planned to be managed by 2019, which will translate to about 700,000 tons of sequestered CO2.  CO2OL-USA (www.co2ol-usa.com) is Futuro Forestal’s technical forestry and marketing partner for its Carbon Sequestration activities.

To become certified under the CCBA Standards, independent 3rd-party auditors must determine that the project satisfies fifteen key criteria, which demonstrate the project will help mitigate climate change, conserve biodiversity, and improve socio-economic conditions for local communities. The mandatory criteria further ensure that environmental and social monitoring programs are in place, no invasive plant or tree species are used, local stakeholders are appropriately involved in the design of the project, and there are no unresolved land tenure issues. The CCBA Standards also address the key carbon-related issues of additionality, leakage, measurement & monitoring, and permanence.

For more information visit  www.futuroforestal.com



Markets Can Help Solve Water Crisis – IUCN
Source: Environmental Finance

"Fair" water markets and payment schemes should be deployed to help protect and restore the world's water resources, according to a new publication from the IUCN – World Conservation Union. Launched on World Water Day, entitled Pay – Establishing Payments for Watershed Services.  The publication describes how water market and incentive schemes should be designed to maintain water resources, providing examples of systems already in place.

"Markets and payment schemes for watershed services can be a cost-effective and efficient way of influencing choice, and changing patterns of behaviour from farmers and land-owners alike", said Ger Bergkamp, head of the IUCN Water Programme.

The report gives the example of France's Vittel, the world's largest mineral water bottling company, which pays an average of $24.5 million/year to compensate farmers for reducing their use of fertiliser. The result is lower contamination of the bottler's main source of water.

It also reviews Costa Rica's trailblazing water payment scheme, which sees water users in Heridia pay through their water bills to protect the forests and water catchment areas on which Heridia's water supply depends. Landowners upstream receive up to $110 per hectare per year to safeguard downstream water quality.

"Nature provides clean water for free – but only if watersheds upstream are kept safe and healthy, and soils free from pollution. Once the landscapes that make up watersheds – for example forests, grasslands, cultivated and riparian areas, and wetlands – are disrupted or contaminated, water becomes very expensive to purify," the IUCN says. "Water payment schemes require careful design and people involved need to understand the benefits and costs associated with creating such markets. Water market and payment schemes needs to be tailored to the social, economic and political realities in any specific location. As with all natural and biological solutions, no one size fits all."

For more information visit www.iucn.org/en/news/archive/2007/03/21_pr_water.htm


Biocarbon Fund To Benefit Rural Poor- Tranche Two Launched In Brussels
Source – Carbon Finance - www.carbonfinance.org

The poorest rural communities of developing countries will be the biggest beneficiaries with the announcement on March 21, 2007 of the launch of Tranche Two of the World Bank’s BioCarbon Fund.  The governments of Ireland and Spain, Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture and the company Zero Emissions Carbon Trust joined the World Bank for the first operational meeting to discuss prospective projects and business plan for Tranche Two.

Tranche Two will support ecosystem restoration projects that sequester or conserve carbon in forest and agro-ecosystems and have a strong emphasis on poverty reduction and socio-economic development (improvements in rural livelihoods) in developing countries and also in countries with economies in transition. Projects will be designed so that local communities benefit directly and/or indirectly.
Tranche Two has two “windows.” The first Window focuses on certificates from projects that are eligible under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (afforestation/reforestation) or Joint Implementation (all land use, land-use change and forestry project types), while the second window will channel resources to activities such as forest restoration and conservation, revegetation, agricultural and rangeland management in developing countries.

Farmers and rural communities in the developing world who have been bypassed by the burgeoning carbon market will be able to earn income from sequestering or conserving carbon in their agricultural lands and forests.

The BioCarbon Fund is a public/private partnership that provides carbon finance for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.  The fund was created to open the carbon market to forestry and agriculture activities. Land use change, in particular tropical deforestation, is responsible for about 20% of annual greenhouse gas emissions, so it is logical that sustainable climate change mitigation should include activities that improve land and forest management. This segment of the carbon market, i.e. transactions based on forestry and agricultural projects, is underdeveloped with a share of just one percent of the total market. This is mostly due to the rules that have been made on the tradability of credits from forestry and agricultural projects at the level of the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol and the exclusion of such credits in the first phase of the European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme.

For more information see - econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/


Research Shows Low Income Households Will Pay More To Tackle Climate Change
Sources: Climate aid scarce for nations at highest risk (International Herald Tribune); March 25 2007
Poor Nations to Bear Brunt as World Warms (New York Times); March 25, 2007;
Poor will pay more to reduce their carbon footprint (The Sydney Morning Herald); March 25, 2007

As public concern over global warming intensifies, so does the climate divide between the world's richest and poorest countries. A new report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change will highlight the growing gap which has left the most vulnerable nations near the equator -- also the poorest -- unable to make the same preparations the wealthy countries are undertaking to manage risks. Industrial powers like the U.S. and Western Europe, which account for two-thirds of greenhouse gas emissions, have the financial edge to invest in such technological safeguards as windmill-powered desalination plants, floatable homes and drought-resistant grains. In sharp contrast, Africa, which has contributed less than 3 percent of global emissions, remains handicapped to protect its 840 million people from dry spells and water shortage.

According to Henry Miller of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, the world needs to shift its focus from cutting down future emissions to instead improving the resiliency of vulnerable regions to climate change. Countries like the United States, Britain and Japan have shown positive steps in this direction through foreign aid allocations for environmental adaptation projects, but total world spending only amounts to around $40 million a year, a number which U.N. Human Development Report Office director Kevin Watkins said "borders on the derisory".
Related to the above, a recent research study from Australia shows low-income households could end up footing a disproportionate share of the bill to tackle climate change. The research, commissioned by the Brotherhood of St Laurence, in Australia ;shows families with higher incomes, despite using more carbon, would have a better capacity to reduce their use if a carbon price were imposed - either via a carbon tax or emissions trading scheme. The author of the research, Peter Brain, from the National Institute of Economic and Industry Research, said high-income families could better afford to switch to the more energy-efficient cars, fridges or washing machines needed to reduce their carbon footprint. They could also opt to switch to more efficient cars. "Wealthier families can rush out and buy fridges that have half or a quarter of the energy intensity," Dr Brain said. "Poorer families can sell their car and go with public transport, but they might not be able to get to work. The key thing is that with a family on $20,000, they have got very little savings and all their income goes on the necessities of life." Dr Brain studied the typical expenditure and emissions patterns of households with different income levels, government benefits and household size. He found the introduction of a carbon price at the conservative end of proposals, of $25 a tonne, would cost a household reliant on unemployment benefits $596 a year, even after they had done their best to reduce usage. This compares with the $261 a year a double-income household with no children would be able to achieve.

Proposals to address the burden of a carbon price on low-income earners will be considered at a meeting today of the Brotherhood, the Australian Conservation Foundation and the National Welfare Rights Network. Dr Brain said government incentives to increase the energy efficiency of household items would help households adjust to a carbon price in the future.

For more information visit http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/poor-will-pay-more-to-reduce-their-carbon-Footprint/2007/03/25/1174761283860.html


Uk Government Gives £50m To Help Save Congo From Deforestation
Source: The Guardian; March 22, 2007

The UK Government has announced £50m for a 10-country initiative across central Africa to prevent the destruction of the second largest rainforest in the world, which is based in the Congo basin countries. The project will be led by Wangari Maathai, the first African woman to win the Nobel Prize for environmental activism in Africa. It is designed to help 50 million people whose livelihoods are under threat from deforestation and government policies.

The Congo rainforest is one of the world's most threatened ecosystems. Clearing for subsistence agriculture and civil strife have devastated forests and displaced their inhabitants. Central African governments have granted no legal land titles to African forest dwellers.

According to the UN food and agriculture organisation, during the 1980s and first half of the 1990s Africa lost 10.5% of its rainforest, contributing to the decline of forest peoples. About 18% of global greenhouse gas emissions come from deforestation.

Studies by campaign groups suggest 160,000 people are dying every year due to climate change-related diseases and the effects of droughts and floods. The UK emits 48 times more carbon per person than the world's least developed countries, yet environmentalists say it is the poor that suffer most of the consequences.

For more information see politics.guardian.co.uk/green/story/0,,2039638,00.html


Goldman Sachs Makes Enviro Markets Grants
Source: - Environmental Finance, 4 January, 2007

US investment bank Goldman Sachs' Center for Environmental Markets has awarded its first research grants, to fund programmes examining market-based solutions to climate change. The grants – totaling $2.3 million – are to three US think-tanks, Resources for the Future (RFF), the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the Woods Hole Research Center.

The RFF grant is to support its climate and technology policy programme, which seeks “to advance economically sensible approaches to dealing with climate change … anticipating the adoption and implementation of federal controls on greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions," the bank said in a statement. The grant to the WRI will fund a two-year project to analyse the viability of technologies designed to reduce GHG emissions in the US and elsewhere, including coal gasification, biofuels, renewable power, and carbon capture and storage. It is to assess financial and market barriers to the deployment of each technology. Finally, the Woods Hole grant will support a three-year project to examine how to value forest ecosystems and analyse economic alternatives to logging rainforests.

The establishment of the Goldman Sachs' Center for Environmental Markets was announced at the end of 2005, when Goldman Sachs introduced its environmental policy. Rather than carry out its own research, it will support independent research into public policy for establishing markets around climate change, biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services.

For more information www2.goldmansachs.com/our_firm/media_center/articles/current_press_releases_article_061227113852.html OR www.environmental-finance.com/onlinews/0104gld.htm


World Bank - Clean Energy For Development Investment Framework
Source: Reuters; March 28, 2007

A World Bank plan for clean energy projects sanctioned by its board two weeks ago would see spending around the globe grow more than 40 percent in the next three years if approved by member countries. The so-called Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework would see World Bank funding of projects rise beyond $10 billion in the next three years from about $7 billion in the past three years.
The aims are to assist developing countries, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa, reduce their carbon emissions while expanding their generation capabilities as global electricity demand is projected to double in the next five years as well as help them adapt to climate change,

The World Bank estimates that for every dollar it invests in a project another $5 is drawn from the private sector, government and others and that developing nations need to invest $300 billion a year to 2030 to meet their power needs, mainly electricity generation and distribution. For more information see siteresources.worldbank.org/DEVCOMMINT/Documentation/21289621/DC2007-0002 (E)-CleanEnergy.pdf



19-23 May 2007
Salzburg, Austria
This seminar will seek to assist participants in facilitating the design of future sustainability strategies and provide practical recommendations for businesses, governments, investors, and environmental organizations aiming to support environmental sustainability through responsible economic growth.
For more information, visit www.salzburgseminar.org

18-20 June 2007
Capturing ideas and suggestions from the 10th meeting in Nairobi, the overall theme for this meeting will be "Environmental Improvements for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Growth: the Challenges of Implementation.” The agenda includes a dedicated session on creating new markets and engaging the private sector on poverty environment issues (with a special focus on Payment for Ecosystem Services). For more information see http://www.povertyenvironment.net/pep/

24-26 August 2007
Kruger NP, South Africa
The meeting will bring together a number of regional and international experts working on carbon cycle sciences in the African continent. Topics of discussion will include regional carbon budgets, urban and regional carbon management, bioenergy, carbon-biodiversity interactions, and other key terrestrial and aquatic processes and fluxes of the carbon cycle (natural, managed and human dimensions of the carbon cycle). All groups are invited to participate. A trip to Kruger National Park is scheduled to visit a number of observation and experimental facilities used in carbon research.
For more information contact: Guy Midgley, Pep Canadell and Shobhakar Dhakal or visit www.globalcarbonproject.org/meetings.htm

27-30 August 2007
Durban, South Africa
The Festival is a 4-day event and includes: seminars, workshops, screenings, interactive exhibition area, photographic exhibition, enjoyable evening networking events.
For more information see www.wildtalkafrica.com

12-14 September, 2007
The Conference focuses on methods, tools, technologies, best practice and case studies developed recently in the world in Environmental Protection.
Detailed information can be found on www.enviroinfo2007.org



This electronic newsletter is compiled by the FAO Collaborative Forests (CPF) team and is focused on news related to forestry funding.
For details and back issues visit http://www.fao.org/forestry/foris/community/main/listthreads?forum=1

This is a 36-page newsletter in the newest format of The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (www.iucn.org). Available 3 times a year. Anyone can access and download it from its website www.iucn.org/worldconservation, or you can write to worldconservation@iucn.org and ask for printed copies

CIAT has designed tools and methods for analyzing and resolving a variety of biophysical, social, economic, and organizational issues and problems in agriculture and natural resource management. A growing number of these products are available on this Web site in electronic form.
For more information visit http://www.ciat.cgiar.org/tools_and_methods/index.htm

The Center for Sustainable Innovation’s Global Warming Footprint tool is now available for public access and use. Known as the Global Warming Footprint Calculator, CSI's tool is the only greenhouse gas measurement and reporting system that actually compares an organization's emissions with an allowable pattern of emissions required to stabilize CO2 concentrations in the earth’s atmosphere. CSI's calculator can be found at www.sustainableinnovation.org/spreadsheetfs.html.

CSI's Global Warming Footprint has been used to measure and report the emissions performance of several multi-national corporations using publicly available data, including Shell, BT, BP, GM, Ford, DuPont and several others. Ten such analyses can be at www.sustainableinnovation.org/global-warming-footprints.html



David Zilberman, Leslie Lipper and Nancy McCarthy

The objective of this paper is to apply economic concepts, particularly those from natural resource and environmental economics, to a wide range of issues associated with the introduction of ES programs in the context of economic development. The authors introduce a typology of ES based upon economic reasoning, showing that payments for ES provide a solution to externalities and public good problems within the bounds of political economic constraints. Secondly, they focus on the problem of who should pay for ES: to what extent are payments likely to be covered within a global framework rather within a national or regional framework? Third, they turn to issues of program design. and present some answers to the questions of how to target payments to achieve their objectives efficiently, and what the implications of alternative design schemes are. In particular, the authors focus upon the equity implications of ES programs and how they can affect poverty alleviation. The final section addresses issues of monitoring and enforcement of ES contracts, and a summary of the key findings in the conclusion.

Available online at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/ah633e/ah633e00.pdfbreakline

By K N Ninan with a foreword by Charles Perrings

This groundbreaking work is the most comprehensive and detailed examination of the economics of  environmental valuation and biodiversity conservation to date. It offers original comparisons of the different ‘values’ of biodiversity, trade-offs, incentives for conservation, case studies of coffee growing and wildlife conservation and practical policy options.

For more information and a 10% discount, visit: http://shop.earthscan.co.uk/ProductDetails/mcs/productID/732; to request a review or inspection copy of this publication please send all the relevant details to natalie.bear@earthscan.co.ukbreakline

Published by Green Peace – 11th April, 2007

This report by Green Peace highlights the effects of logging roads in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) on climate change. Predictions for future deforestation in Central Africa estimate that by 2050 forest clearance in the DRC will release a total of up to 34.4 billion tonnes of CO2, roughly equivalent to the UK’s CO2 emissions over the last sixty years. The DRC risks losing more than 40% of its forests with transport infrastructure such as logging roads being one of the major drivers.

Logging roads open up the rainforest allowing access. With access comes commercial poaching: the rainforests are being emptied of large mammals to feed the trade in commercial bushmeat and ivory. And once the rainforest is opened up by logging roads, the area becomes vulnerable to clearance for agriculture. With road clearance come CO2 emissions from rainforest destruction. With CO2 emissions comes further climate instability. Logging titles across Central Africa already cover some 50 million hectares of rainforest, an area the size of Spain. Logging companies are effectively road engineers, laying down a skeletal grid of arterial routes through intact rainforests. The swathes cleared through the forest for these logging roads can be wider than some of Europe’s major motorways. Extensive logging roads and other logging infrastructure are a significant source of emissions through fragmenting and degrading rainforests. As global emissions figures only take account of deforestation, the emissions resulting from such fragmentation are currently overlooked.

Available online at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/carving-up-the-congo-exec.pdfbreakline

By A. Skonhoft; Produced by: Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (2006)
This article presents modelling approaches for wildlife and species conservation with a special emphasis on large mammals, in a developing country context, and with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. In these countries there are frequently conflicts over land use and species conservation, and the institutions to tackle such conflicts are often weak or lacking. In addition, most of the world species and biodiversity are found in developing countries.

Two main issues are discussed. The first is a situation where the wildlife is valuable, but is considered a pest by the local people living close to the wildlife. For example, wildlife may damage agricultural crops or prey on livestock. The paper analyses this in a two-agent model, the actors being a local community and a protected area management agency.

In a second model the author considers models with a discrepancy between a management area and biological area, and where the species flows between a conservation area with no game harvesting and a neighbouring area with harvesting and possible habitat degradation.

The paper demonstrates that that wildlife conservation can work directly against the interests of the local people, while reducing damage to wildlife typically improves the degree of conservation as well as the living conditions of the community. The stylised natural resource models used here help to clarify some fundamental principles of wildlife conservation problems, which means policy implications are often fairly simple to understand. In more complex but also more realistic models the driving forces are often progressively more difficult to understand, and the policy implications harder to grasp. The paper concludes that in some instances such models are needed in order to better understand and explain the actual problem.

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/rdr.cfm?doc=DOC23521breakline

By Christine Loh and Roger Raufer, CLSA Asia Pacific ; January 2007.

This report explores both the environmental and financial aspects of emissions trading. The authors first explain the environmental arguments for carbon emissions reduction and how emissions trading works, including a case study of proposed emissions trading schemes in China and Hong Kong. Putting a price on carbon will lead individuals and businesses to move away from high-carbon good and services to their low-carbon alternatives. The development of carbon-trading markets is also an important opportunity for the financial sector, already worth more than USD10 billion annually worldwide. The authors envision a world where businesses, nations, and even individuals transition to a carbon constrained world.

Available online at http://www.civic-exchange.org/index.php?cat=99.breakline


Given the interest in implementing land-use change and forestry projects for mitigating carbon dioxide emissions, there is potentially a large demand for a system to measure carbon stocks accurately and precisely in a cost-effective manner. As terrestrial ecosystems tend to be heterogeneous, a large number of sample plots could be needed to attain desired levels of precision, thus resulting in a costly process. Additional costs can be incurred when sites are remote or difficult to reach. A potential way of reducing costs of measuring the carbon stocks and condition of forests is to collect the key data remotely. Winrock International designed a multispectral three-dimensional aerial digital imagery system that collects high-resolution overlapping stereo imagery (≤ 10 cm pixels) from which they can distinguish individual trees, shrubs and the gaps left after their removal. In essence, Winrock created a virtual forest that can be used to measure trees, forest gaps, skid trails, roads, and other carbon-relevant factors.
This system has been successfully tested in settings as disparate as a pine savanna in Belize, tropical forests in Puerto Rico, Peru, and Costa Rica and bottomland temperate hardwoods in Mississippi.
As part of Winrock International’s larger effort to determine the impact of logging on carbon stocks, high resolution aerial digital imagery was collected in the North of the Republic of Congo. Using this imagery Winrock identified logging gaps in areas logged by CIB (Congolaise Industrielle du Bois) in 2004. Used in combination with ground data, these gaps can be used to determine the amount of carbon in trees removed, as well as in those damaged in the felling and extracting processes.

For more information, please contact Dr. Sandra Brown - Email: sbrown@winrock.org



Call For Nominations

The National Geographic Society’s Buffett Award for Leadership in African Conservation is currently soliciting nominations for the 2007 award. This award honors the unsung heroes of African conservation. It is intended to support the recipient’s ongoing work while recognizing his or her
remarkable achievements in conserving nature or culture in southern and eastern Africa. The award includes a $25,000 grant. 

Deadline is May 31st, 2007. For more information, please contact jfrancis@ngs.orgbreakline


The African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) is pleased to announce the opening of applications for the 2007-2008 Charlotte Conservation Fellows scholarship program.

Since its founding in 1961, the African Wildlife Foundation has believed that Africans are the ideal stewards of Africa’s natural resources. This core belief led AWF to assist in establishing the first school to train African wildlife managers in Tanzania in 1961. To date, the school has trained over 3000 wildlife managers.

Today, lack of capacity to implement conservation programs continues to be one of the major threats facing wildlife conservation. AWF continues to invest in training and scholarship opportunities every year with the goal of enhancing the effectiveness and impact of African nationals in the fields relevant to conservation and sustainable development through the increased knowledge, skills, and credentials obtained through an advanced degree.

Under the Charlotte Conservation Fellowship Program, AWF is offering scholarships for full MSc or partial Ph.D. programs with field research components that produce knowledge or insight into specific conservation challenges in the African Heartlands or Conservation in general. This year, citizens of Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe are eligible to apply.

Expenses that AWF expects to cover under the scholarship will vary depending on the individual program selected by the scholarship recipient, but each scholarship is valued at a maximum cost of US$25,000. Those whose total costs for their studies exceed this figure must demonstrate that they have secured additional funding from other sources to enable them to complete their studies.

Applications must be received by June 30, 2007. To download the application and information materials visit www.awf.org.  For more information, contact: In Kenya: Daudi Sumba
Telephone: +254 20 2710367 Email: charlottefellowship@awfke.org;In the USA: Paul Thomson
Telephone: 202-939-3321; Email: pthomson@awf.org Web site:  www.awf.orgbreakline


The Rothamsted International African Fellows Programme (AFP) aims to provide problem-focused advanced research training in Europe, for mid-career African scientists. The purpose of the AFP is to assist in capacity building, institutional strengthening and knowledge transfer in order to empower resource-poor countries to find relevant solutions to the problems of achieving sustainable agricultural production, improving rural development and conservation of biodiversity.  The AFP is open to ‘mid-career’ scientists who are citizens of an African country, or whose scientific work has been based in Africa and directed to problems of relevance to Africa.

For any enquiries or further information please contact the AFP Co-ordinator, Rothamsted International, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, UK. Email: rothamsted.international@bbsrc.ac.uk or visit the website http://www.rothamsted-international.org/HTML/Fellowships/AFP_main_page.htmlbreakline


Now in its third year, World Challenge 2007, in association with Shell, is a global competition that seeks out projects and businesses that not only make a profit, but also put something back into the community. The mission of World Challenge 2007 is to seek and reward innovators and entrepreneurs who are implementing grassroots solutions to some of the toughest problems of our age, from poverty to pollution. The winner will receive a US$20,000 from Shell to benefit their project. One representative from each of the three final projects will be flown to The Hague, The Netherlands to attend the award ceremony in December 2007.

World Challenge 2007 is brought to you by BBC World and Newsweek, in association with Shell,

For more information visit http://www.theworldchallenge.co.uk/breakline


The European Commission has committed EUR 80 million to the Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund ("GEEREF" or "the Fund"). The fund is now looking to receive proposals from fund management companies, financial institutions, project developers or individuals that intend to develop a clean energy investment fund or intend to expand an existing fund into the clean energy sector. Developers of clean energy projects in one or more countries are also invited to propose their plans as a basis for a clean energy investment fund. Proposals are expected to meet the following indicative criteria:

    • Financially sustainable business plan generating a fair return for investors
    • Specified environmental and socio-economic impacts
    • Focus on small and medium sized clean energy projects (< 30MW) and companies
    • Requiring long term patient investment capital
    • Locally grounded, professional fund management team, preferable with a track record in the clean energy sector, or at least the capacity to become qualified or to liaise with other parties for that purpose
    • Realistic pipeline that gives evidence of the viability of the business plan.

GEEREF expects to make its first commitment by July 2007. Prior to the financial closing, the Fund
may provide technical and financial support to potential fund managers to develop regional funds.

For more information, please contact Bas Rekvelt- bas.rekvelt@triodos.nl, (www.triodos.nl) or
Paul van Aalst, paul.van-aalst@EandCo.net (www.EandCo.net)breakline


Alcoa Foundation has announced the third round of Practitioner Fellows for its Conservation & Sustainability Fellowship Program, a US$8.6 million program that funds fellowships around the world to study conservation and sustainability issues. The results of those studies are then shared with the world in order to promote sustainable best practices.

Alcoa Foundation Fellows are mid-level professionals from external non-governmental organizations (NGOs)--and in some cases, government organizations--who conduct six- to twelve-month intensive applied research projects in conservation and sustainability. Alcoa Foundation Fellows work from their home organizations and are mentored by an expert from one of the program's three Sustainability Institutes: The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Tecnológico de Monterrey (ITESM), and World Wildlife Fund – United States (WWF-US).

Alcoa Foundation Fellows selected in the past are completing research that will lead to solutions to some of the major conservation and sustainability issues:

  • Climate change and energy,
  • Conservation of fragile ecosystems and biodiversity,
  • Sustainable livelihoods and economic growth, and
  •  Integrating sustainability into public policy and governance.

Over six years, the program will support the research activities of 60 practitioner fellows and 30 academic fellows from around the world.

More information about Alcoa Foundation's Conservation & Sustainability Fellowship Program and the online application are available at www.alcoa.com/csfapp. Application deadline is May 31, 2007.breakline


WWF invites nominations for the 2007 J. Paul Getty Award for Conservation Leadership. Each year the J. Paul Getty Award recognizes a leader in conservation in one of three annually rotating themes: political leadership, scientific leadership, and community leadership. This year’s category is scientific leadership in biodiversity conservation.  

In addition to recognizing today’s top conservationists, the Award also helps build conservation leadership for tomorrow.  The award prize of $200,000 will be used to establish graduate fellowships named in honor of the winner and J. Paul Getty to support students in conservation-related fields at a university of the winner’s choice in his/her home country. WWF will work with both the winner and the designated university to design an appropriate fellowship program for graduate students.

The winner, working with WWF, will establish eligibility criteria based on his/her own specific interests or the needs of his/her country. Fellowships will in general contribute to graduate students’ educational costs for a period of two years. Costs per fellow, and possibly the number of fellows, will vary each year depending on actual costs at the fellows’ universities, currency exchange rates, etc.

WWF welcomes nominations for scientists who have made recent and significant contributions to biodiversity conservation through their research and other efforts. Nominees may be from any part of the world. However, preference will be given to scientists from developing countries, particularly those working in one of WWF-US’s priority places.  

For more information, please contact WWF at gettyaward@wwfus.org. breakline


Development is the flagship journal of the Society for International Development (SID -www.sidint.org/development) published quarterly by Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Development is calling for papers for the March 2008 issue on ‘Water for People’. The focus of this edition is on how human communities shape the ecologies, histories, cultures and the politics of water resource development and planning at global, regional, national and local scales. Development would like to invite interdisciplinary explorations from academics and practitioners alike, who can offer new perspectives and insights, explore alternative theoretical models, and offer examples of projects that construct new meanings of water. Development fosters dialogue between academics and practitioners putting forth alternative visions in both the developed and less developed world. The goal of this special issue is to contribute to a new articulation of theory, practice, and ethics that help us better understand and deal with water resources under conditions of globalisation and liberalisation in
countries across the world.

For more information, contact Guest Editor: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt, Fellow, The Australian National University Kuntala.Lahiri-Dutt@anu.edu.aubreakline


The Rufford Small Grants Foundation is excited to announce the new ‘Innovation Award’. This Award is available to a new, substantial project which could have ground breaking effects in mature Conservation in the developing world. For this we are offering a one-off grant of up to £ 50, 000.

Ideas should be submitted via email to josh@rufford.org ; Website: http://www.rufford.org/rsg/ breakline


The International Foundation for Science (IFS) and the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida/NATUR) have commenced a project "Use of Water as a Scarce Resource in Biological Production". Through the project, support is provided to research and capacity building that improves the productivity of water for biological production (annual field crops, perennials, forage crops, trees, animal production, freshwater aquaculture etc.). The following priority research areas have been identified:

  • Plant characteristics related to water productivity and the development of drought and salinity resistance crop varieties
  • Interactions between plant cover (including crops, trees and pasture), livestock, solid and water
  • Catchment and subcatchment level studies of the "flow" of water through the landscape and its distribution between run-off, ground storage, evaporation and evapo-transpiration,
  • Adaptation of existing sustainable technologies and processes for water harvesting and irrigation techniques to local environmental conditions and the development of new technologies and processes designed for local conditions,
  • Socio-cultural, economic and institutional (i.e. rules and norms) factors affecting the adoption of sustainable technologies and processes by farmers, pastoralists and other agricultural stakeholders.
  • Soil fertility

Application Deadline is June 30 2007.  For more information, visit their Website: http://www.ifs.se/Programme/water_scarce_resource.asp



We invite you to look at the Katoomba Group’s other newsletters.

The Ecosystem Market Place Newsletter - http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/pages/newsletter/1.3.07.html

The Community Forum Newsletter-  http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/pages/newsletter/cf_1.17.07.html

Voluntary Carbon Newsletter - http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/pages/newsletter/vc_1.18.07.html